Turkey on Wednesday lifted its more than two-year ban on accessing Wikipedia, weeks after the country's highest court ruled that the block violated freedom of expression.
Turkey blocked Wikipedia in April 2017, accusing it of being part of a "smear campaign" against the country, after the website refused to remove content that allegedly portrayed Turkey as supporting the Islamic State group and other terrorist organizations.
Access resumed Wednesday, hours after Turkey's Official Gazette published details of last month's Constitutional 's Court ruling in favor of Wikipedia.
Access to the website was blocked under a law that allows the government to ban websites that it deems to pose a national security threat.
Wikipedia had declined to remove content from the community-generated site, citing its opposition to censorship. It petitioned the Constitutional Court in May 2017 after talks with Turkish officials and a challenge in lower courts failed.
Turkey has a poor record on censorship and suppression of free speech, which intensified following a failed military coup in 2016 against President Recep Tayyip Erdogan's government. Tens of thousands of people were arrested or dismissed from government jobs and thousands of media organizations or civil society groups were shut in a clampdown in the aftermath of the coup attempt.
Access from Turkey to tens of thousands of other websites remain blocked. In 2008, Turkey prevented access to YouTube for two years over videos insulting the Turkish republic's founding leader. Twitter, meanwhile, says it receives more requests for content removal from Turkey than from other countries.
Many Turks however, have found ways to circumvent the ban on Wikipedia and other blocked websites.
The US military is resuming operations against Islamic State militants in Iraq and is working to soon restart training Iraqi forces, U.S. officials said Wednesday, despite deep divisions over the American drone strike that killed an senior Iranian commander in Baghdad and the resulting missile attacks by Iran on Iraqi bases.
One official said some joint operations between the U.S. and Iraqi forces have already begun, but there are not yet as many as before. The official said details are still being worked out to restore the training of Iraqi forces, but that could happen relatively soon.
Relations with Iraq were fractured after the U.S. launched a drone strike near Baghdad's international airport on Jan. 3 that killed Iranian Gen. Qassem Soleimani. The Parliament later voted to expel U.S. forces from the country and Prime Minister Adel Abdul-Mahdi asked Washington to work out a road map for a troop withdrawal. The U.S. flatly rejected that request and has not moved to pull the more than 5,000 troops out.
Officials spoke on condition of anonymity to discuss decisions not yet made public.
One official said military leaders have discussed the resumption of operations with the Iraqis, but it's not clear who was involved in those talks or whether Iraqi government leaders are publicly endorsing the move.
Iraqi leaders were angry about the American drone strike and the retaliatory attacks by Iran. Iranian missiles struck Al-Asad Air Base last week, and hit near another base, but warnings sounded and no one was killed or injured.
Iraq officials, however, called the U.S. strike that killed Soleimani an unacceptable breach of Iraqi sovereignty. That strike also killed Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis, the deputy commander of Iran-backed militias known as the Popular Mobilization Forces. And thousands of anti-government protesters turned out in Baghdad and southern Iraq, with many calling for both the U.S. and Iran to leave their country.
U.S. officials, including Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, dismissed the calls for American troops to leave, saying the forces are critical to the fight against the Islamic State group.
"We are happy to continue the conversation with the Iraqis about what the right structure is," Pompeo said during one White House appearance last week.
Tensions in Iraq had been spiking since late December, when a rocket attack at a base in northern Iraq killed one American contractor. The U.S. blamed Iran-backed fighters and quickly struck back. American airstrikes targeted Iranian-backed militia at five sites in Iraq and Syria, including weapons depots and command and control bases.
Over New Year's, hundreds of Iran-backed militiamen attacked the highly fortified American embassy compound in Baghdad. The Pentagon deployed hundreds of additional troops to the region, and scaled back military operations and training inside Iraq.
U.S. officials have said they believe Iraq is also interested in resuming the training, which has been going on since 2015, after IS began taking control of large swaths of Iraq and Syria. More details, including increased security for U.S. and coalition forces, are still being discussed.
The New York Times first reported the resumption of joint military operations.
The top U.N. official in Lebanon on Wednesday denounced acts of vandalism by protesters targeting the country's banks a day earlier. But the senior diplomat reserved his harshest words for Lebanese politicians, saying they had only themselves to blame for the chaos.
The strongly worded statement by Jan Kubis, U.N. special coordinator for Lebanon, came as violent confrontations between protesters and police continued for a second consecutive day. On Wednesday night, police fired tear gas and beat up protesters who hit back with fire crackers, water bottles and stones in a Beirut neighborhood. At least 35 were injured, mostly from gas inhalation or rock throwing, according to the Red Cross. Ten were treated on the spot.
Kubis criticized the political class' management of the country's deepening economic crisis, saying those responsible for handling it "are watching it collapse. Incredible."
Kubis' comments, made in a series of tweets, reflect the growing frustration of the international community with the stalemate that has beset the country as politicians jockey for power even as the economy spirals downward.
International donors have been demanding that Lebanon institute major economic changes and anti-corruption measures and appoint a new government to unlock $11 billion in pledges made in 2018.
Panic and anger gripped the public as they watched their local currency, pegged to the dollar for almost three decades, plummet, losing more than 60% of its value in recent weeks. Public debt has soared while the economy contracted and foreign inflows dried up in the already heavily indebted country that relies on imports for most of its basic goods.
Meanwhile, banks have imposed informal capital controls, limiting withdrawal of dollars and foreign transfers in the country.
Protesters rallied outside the central bank Tuesday night denouncing its governor's policies and the entire political class for mismanaging the economy. The rally turned violent, and protesters clashed with security forces for hours, some of them smashing windows of private banks nearby.
"Another day of confusion around the formation of a government, amidst the increasingly angry protests and free-falling economy," Kubis tweeted. "Politicians, don't blame the people, blame yourselves for this dangerous chaos."
He said, however, that vandalism is not an appropriate way of manifesting "legitimate anger and desperation."
Lebanese security forces arrested 59 people, police said Wednesday, following the overnight clashes. The hours-long clashes also left 47 policemen injured, security forces said.
On Wednesday, hundreds gathered outside a police station demanding the release of those taken into custody the night before, clashing with security forces who lobbed tear gas to disperse them. Police detained scores of protesters and beat some of them, including women, dragging them away. For the second night in a row, some protesters smashed the windows of a private bank and destroyed a nearby ATM machine.
Elsewhere in Beirut, protesters resumed blocking roads and rallied outside the central bank by nightfall. Dozens were able to partially block three main roads and temporarily shut down a highway north of the city before the military reopened it.
In three months of protests, this was the first time the commercial center of Beirut had become the scene of clashes. The area, which is also home to theaters and restaurants, was left deserted except for protesters, police and smoke from the tear gas.
Traffic resumed Wednesday and shops and banks reopened as pavement was cleared of broken glass.
Outgoing Prime Minister Saad Hariri, who resigned shortly after the protests first began in mid-October, said the violence in Hamra was "unacceptable" and an aggression on the heart of the capital. He called for an investigation. A new prime minister designate was named in December but has still been unable to form a new government.
Iraq's outgoing prime minister said Wednesday it was up to the next government to see through parliament's decision to oust U.S. troops.
Prime Minister Adel Abdul-Mahdi's comments came ahead of planned protests against the American military presence in Iraq called for by an influential Shiite cleric.
Washington has responded to Iraq's requests to initiate troop withdrawals with blunt refusal. And on Wednesday, U.S. officials said the U.S. military is resuming operations against Islamic State militants in Iraq and is working to soon restart training Iraqi forces. The officials spoke on condition of anonymity to discuss decisions not yet made public.
Meanwhile, Qatar said it was seeking to play a mediating role amid escalating tensions following a U.S. drone strike that killed a top Iranian general in Baghdad.
Abdul-Mahdi's government is in caretaker status following his resignation in December under pressure from mass demonstrations.
"I request that the president, parliament and political parties nominate a new prime minister, a new government that has full authority because these difficult, complicated circumstances, especially with pulling of the troops ... that needs a government with full authority so it can go forward," Abdul-Mahdi said in comments aired Wednesday from a Cabinet session the previous day.
The U.S. strike prompted Iraq's parliament to pass a non-binding resolution requesting the government end the presence of American troops in the country. Abdul-Mahdi has stood by the resolution despite signs of de-escalating tensions between Washington and Tehran. Iran retaliated for the killing by hitting two military bases hosting U.S. troops but did not cause casualties.
Last week, Abdul-Mahdi asked U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo to work out a road map for an American troop withdrawal, but Washington responded saying the two sides should instead discuss how to "recommit" to their partnership.
Abdul-Mahdi's recent remarks suggest he is keen on maintaining good relations with Washington yet firm that U.S. troops must leave.
"I am determined to keep our friendships with all. They all helped us, they all scarified for us, some with blood, some with financial aid in fighting (the Islamic State group)," he said.
"We also respect the parliament's decision and we are working on implementing it in the right manner that guarantees Iraq's sovereignty."
Meanwhile, followers of influential Shiite cleric Moqtada al-Sadr acted on his call for "millions" to take to the streets to demonstrate against the American troop presence by announcing planned protests to take place next week, according to a statement circulating on social media verified by two activists. The protests are expected to take place on Jan. 24, according to the statement.
The cleric, who also leads the Sairoon bloc in parliament, derives much of his political capital through grassroots mobilization.
Activists in Tahrir Square, the epicenter of a four-month anti-government protest movement, said they feared the demonstrations would spark clashes.
"We are afraid that he will decide to start the protests in Tahrir," said Mustafa, an activist who gave only his first name fearing reprisals. "In this case there would be big issues with the Tahrir demonstrators."
Meanwhile, Qatar's Foreign Minister Mohammed bin Abdulrahman al-Thani, said the Gulf country was making contacts with regional and international countries in order to de-escalate regional tensions. His visit to Iraq comes days after Qatar's Emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani visited Tehran.
"Qatar, together with some friendly countries, is trying to decrease tensions. We have made international contacts for more consultations with our brotherly and sisterly countries," al-Thani said in a joint press conference with Iraq's Foreign Affairs Minister Mohammed al-Hakim.
Al-Thani met with Iraqi Prime Minister Adel Abdul-Mahdi and President Barham Saleh later Wednesday.
"We discussed ways of decreasing tensions in our region and we have our common efforts and joint efforts together with our friends in Iran and America and our talks," said al-Hakim.
Iran's president warned Wednesday that European soldiers in the Mideast "could be in danger" after three nations challenged Tehran over breaking the limits of its nuclear deal. Tehran's top diplomat meanwhile acknowledged that Iranians "were lied to" for days following the Islamic Republic's accidental shootdown of a Ukrainian jetliner that killed 176 people.
President Hassan Rouhani's remarks in a televised Cabinet meeting represent the first direct threat he's made to Europe as tensions remain high between Tehran and Washington over President Donald Trump withdrawing the U.S. from the deal in May 2018.
Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif's admission, which came at a summit in New Delhi on Wednesday, represents the first time an Iranian official referred to earlier claims from Tehran that a technical malfunction downed the Ukraine International Airlines flight as a lie. The shootdown has sparked days of angry protests in the country.
The current tensions between Iran and the U.S. reached fever-pitch two weeks ago with the American drone strike in Baghdad that killed the powerful Revolutionary Guard Gen. Qassem Soleimani. The general had led Iranian proxy forces abroad, including those blame for deadly roadside bomb attacks on U.S. troops in Iraq.
Iran retaliated with a ballistic missile strike targeting Iraqi military bases housing U.S. forces early last Wednesday, just before an anti-aircraft battery shot down the Ukrainian airliner taking off from Tehran's Imam Khomeini International Airport.
Amid all of this, Britain, France and Germany launched the so-called "dispute mechanism" pertaining to Iran's 2015 nuclear deal with world powers. Speaking before his Cabinet, Rouhani showed a rarely seen level of anger in his wide-ranging remarks Wednesday.
"Today, the American soldier is in danger, tomorrow the European soldier could be in danger," Rouhani said. He did not elaborate, though European forces have deployed alongside Americans in Iraq and Afghanistan. France also maintains a naval base in Abu Dhabi, the capital of the United Arab Emirates, while Britian has opened a base in the island nation of Bahrain.
Rouhani separately criticized Europe's "baseless" words regarding the nuclear deal. Iran had been holding out for Europe to offer a means by which Tehran could sell its oil abroad despite U.S. sanctions. However, a hoped-for trading mechanism for other goods hasn't taken hold and a French-pitched line of credit also hasn't materialized.
After Soleimani's killing, Iran announced it would no longer abide by any of the nuclear deal's limits, which had been designed to keep Tehran from having enough material to be able to build an atomic bomb if it chose. However, Iran has said it will continue to allow the United Nations' nuclear watchdog access to its nuclear sites. Rouhani on Wednesday also reiterated a longtime Iranian pledge that Tehran doesn't seek the bomb.
The European nations reluctantly triggered the accord's dispute mechanism on Tuesday to force Iran into discussions, starting the clock on a process that could result in the "snapback" of U.N. and EU sanctions on Iran.
The Europeans felt compelled to act, despite objections from Russia and China, because every violation of the deal reduces the so-called "breakout time" Iran needs to produce a nuclear bomb, Britain's Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab told parliament. Under the deal's limits, experts believed Iran needed a year to be able to have enough material for a weapon.
Zarif, speaking in New Delhi at the Raisina Dialogue, blamed U.S. "ignorance" and "arrogance" for "fueling mayhem" in the Middle East. However, he also acknowledged the anger Iranians felt over the plane shootdown.
"In the last few nights, we've had people in the streets of Tehran demonstrating against the fact that they were lied to for a couple of days," Zarif said.
Zarif went onto praise Iran's military for being "brave enough to claim responsibility early on."
However, he said that he and Rouhani only learned that a missile had down the flight on Friday, raising new questions over how much power Iran's civilian government has in its Shiite theocracy. Iran's paramilitary Revolutionary Guard, which shot down the aircraft, knew immediately afterward its missile downed the airline.
The Guard is answerable only to Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, who is expected to preside over Friday prayers in Iran for the first time in years over anger about the crash.
But there was a sense that the chance for immediate further retaliation by Iran against the U.S. may have lifted. Hossein Salami, the head of the Guard, said in a speech that Iran's "war project was closed since the people stood" against American pressure.
"Now, we are moving toward peace," Salami said.
Later Wednesday, Iranian state media said the British ambassador to Iran, Robert Macaire, had left the country. Macaire left after being given what the state-run IRNA news agency described as "prior notice," without elaborating. Britain's Foreign Office insisted Macaire's trip to London was "routine, business as usual" and was planned before his arrest in Tehran. It said he planned return to Iran.
Macaire had been held after attending a candlelight vigil Saturday in Tehran over Iran shooting down the Ukrainian jetliner. The vigil quickly turned into an anti-government protests and Macaire left shortly after, only to be arrested by police.