The arrestees were identified as Anowar Hossain Prokash and his accomplice Md Helal.
Officer-in-Charge of Bayazid Bostami Police Station Priton Sarkar said the victim was returning home at Banglabazar on Saturday evening when the duo took her to a remote place and raped her.
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Later, locals rescued the girl after hearing her scream while the arrestees managed to flee and informed police by calling emergency number 999, he added.
The 17-year-old victim was admitted to Chattogram Medical College Hospital, he said.
Her mother filed a case over the matter, OC said.
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